2021年2月13日 星期六

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怪力亂神


[觀落陰]
一種使靈魂出竅到冥界觀看的道教的儀式。實施時觀者須眼睛蒙著紅布,赤腳踩在金紙之上,跟隨道士牽引至冥界。觀落陰通常有兩種目的,一種是與過世的親人會面,另外一種是觀看自己元神宮的狀況。元神宮為自己靈魂的住所,屋子的狀況反映了自己整體的運勢,比如廚房擺設代表財運、臥室則是代表感情和婚姻,可以藉由觀落陰調整自己元神宮的狀況以改善自己在陽間的運勢。


[BLINDFOLD TAOIST RITUAL.]
A Taoist ritual. It allows the human soul to leave the body temporarily in order to go out to the underworld to see it. The participant must have a red cloth on his eyes, barefoot to step on the gold paper and follow the direction of Taoist during the ritual in order to view the underworld. There are two purposes for the participant: one is to meet with deceased relatives, the other is to view the condition of their own Yuanshen Palace. Yuanshen Palace is the residence of a person’s soul once deceased. The condition of the palace reflects the overall fortune of the person, its interconnected. For example, the kitchen represents wealth ,and the bedroom represents love and marriage,therefore you can improve your own fortune in this world by adjusting the condition of your Yuanshen Palace.


[觀落陰]
道教観霊術の觀落陰とは自らが霊界に趣く儀式であります。実施する際、目に赤い布をつけ、裸足で金紙を踏み、道士に続いて霊界に向かいます。一般的に觀落陰は2つの目的があります。一つは死んだ家族親戚と会うこと、もう一つは「元神宮」を見ることであります。「元神宮」とは、自分の精神の部屋のような存在。部屋の状態から自分の運勢がわかります。例えば、キッチン家具は金運を表し、寝室は感情や結婚を表しています。觀落陰を通じて、自分の元神宮を調整して、実際の運勢を改善すると思われています。





[南斗註生,北斗註死]
古代人觀看星晨用來指引方向和占卜等用途,所以民間便開始有了星宿神格化的崇拜。道教成立後吸收了民間信仰,其中地位特別凸出的就是南斗星君與北斗星君。南斗星君與北斗星君是道教中陪侍在玉皇大帝左右的神祉,南斗星君掌管人的生命長短,北斗星君掌管人的死亡。人的一生便是從南斗引至北斗,便有「南斗註生,北斗註死」的說法流傳在民間。想要祈求長壽就是要膜拜這兩位神明。


[NANDOU IS TO GIVE BIRTH, BEIDOU IS TO SPREAD DEATH.]
Ancient people watched stars for directions and divination purposes. The folks began to the worship the stars. After the establishment of Taoism, it absorbed folk beliefs. Among them, Nandou Xingjun and Beidou Xingjun are particularly prominent. Nandou Xingjun and Beidou Xingjun are the gods who accompany the Jade Emperor in Taoism. Nandou Xingjun is in charge of a person's life spam, Beidou Xingjun is in charge of death. The whole life of a person is dictated by Nandou and Beidou. There is a saying that "Nandou is to give birth, Beidou is to spread death". To pray for longevity is to worship these two gods.


[南斗は生を司る神で、北斗は死を司る神]
古代では星辰の観察を通し、方角の判断や占いなどをした。それで、星宿信仰となり星の神格化が民間に広がりました。道教は民間の思想を取り込みながら発展し、特に南斗星君と北斗星君は際立っています。南斗星君と北斗星君は道教の思想の中では、玉皇大帝の隣に伴う神様です。南斗星君は人間の生命の長さを司り、北斗星君は人間の死亡を司る。人の人生は南斗から北斗に引き渡すため「南斗は生を司る神で、北斗は死を司る神」という説が広がりました。長生きを祈りたいなら、南斗と北斗を参拝することです。






[蓮花化身]
我在紀錄片「看不見的台灣」所看到的一種道教超渡儀式。

傳統觀念認為,「身體髮膚,受之父母,不敢毀傷,孝之始也。」即便人死亡了也要留下全屍;而蓮花化身的儀式,是用來超渡沒有身體的孤魂、或是死無全屍的亡者,以蓮花代替缺損的身軀。

儀式由來取自中國神話中,哪吒因為打死海龍王三太子,被海龍王找上門尋仇,哪吒怕連累父母,所以削骨還父削肉還母,當場自殺,最後師父太乙真人用蓮花為哪吒造了一個身體使其復生。


[Lotus Incarnation ]
I once saw this Taoist soul releasing ceremony on “A Journey with Invisible Friends”, a documentary movie here in Taiwan.

In the traditional idea of filial piety, our bodies- to every hair and bit of skins- are received by us from our parents, and we must not presume to injure or harm them. This is the beginning of filial piety. This means that even when someone has passed away, the body needs to be kept intact. When a lost soul or damned spirit, or the dead without the body intact; the lotus incarnation ceremony is preformed to help release it from purgatory. The ceremony uses lotus to substitute either the missing body or the missing body parts.

It’s origin came from Chinese mythology. When Nezha had beaten the third prince of the sea and the sea dragon king came for revenge; he was afraid to get his parents involved, so he cut his bones and trimmed his meat off to give them back to his parents and committed suicide. Later his master the lord Tai Yi of Salvation used lotus to create a body for Nezha’s incarnation and resurrected him.


[蓮の化身]
ドキュメンタリー《看不見的台灣》(A Journey with Invisible Friends)でこの道教の成仏儀式が紹介されました。

昔から「肉体、毛髪と皮膚は、両親から頂いたもの。気をつけて傷つけないようにするのは、親孝行を実践する第一歩だ」という観念があり、人が死んでも、どの部位も欠かせないと思われています。蓮の化身儀式は体のない家族もない魂を成仏させるため、無くなった体を蓮に代替することです。

蓮の化身儀式の由来は道教の神話です。哪吒(なた)が竜王の三番目の息子を殺したため、竜王が復讐を誓います。哪吒は両親が巻き込まれないように、自ら体を切って、骨を父に肉を母に返上して自殺しました。その後、師匠太乙真人は蓮で体を作って、哪吒を蘇生させました。




[收驚]
收驚為常見的道教活人招魂儀式。

由於道教相信人由靈魂和肉體組成,其中靈魂又分成三魂七魄,一般正常情況下是穩定結合的狀態,但是人如果受到驚嚇,靈魂會跑出肉身之外,靈魂和肉體分離會造成心神不穩定的狀況,這時就必須借助儀式將靈魂招回。

收驚儀式沒有一定的形式,通常常見簡單的方式是唸咒語時,同時拿著香或金紙在人體表面揮舞。收驚對象尤其常見於受到驚嚇哭鬧不止的嬰兒。

[Calling back the spirits ]
Call back the spirits of the living ceremony is a very common ceremony of Taoism religious practice. Taoism believes that human is made up of body; and with 3 immortal souls and 7 mortal forms.

Taoists believe the immortal souls and mortal forms can be frightened and leave our body, if something
shocking happens. In turns of causing instability within the state of mind. When that happens, it calls for the ceremony to be preformed.

There is no certain way to preform the ceremony, most common one is while chanting the incantation, the Taoist priest would also be waving the spirit paper or the lit incense on the surface of the body or the person whom needed the ceremony preformed. Normally a crying baby is most usually seen as getting the ceremony preformed .

[收驚(お祓い)]
收驚は人の魂を戻す儀式で、台湾でよく行われています。

道教では、人間は魂と体で構成されていると思われています。そして魂は3つの魂と7つの魄(はく)に分かれており、通常は一つになってる状態だが、驚かされた時、魂は身体から離れてしまいます。魂と肉体が離れてしまうと心身不安定の原因になります。この時は儀式を行い魂を戻させます。

收驚は特定の流れがありませんが、一般的によくあるのは呪文を唱えながら、收驚対象の体の周りを線香、金紙を持ってなぞります。驚かされて泣き続ける赤ちゃんは特に收驚対象になります。







[水燈頭]
放水燈頭為中元節普渡前的一項儀式,用來通知水中的孤魂野鬼前來接受普渡的款待,儀式過程因地區不同而有所差異。水燈頭是由紙紮而成的屋子,傳統相信物質經由焚燒可以轉化至另外一個世界,在焚燒水燈頭前要在房屋中心內放入紙錢、蠟燭和經文,焚燒時再放入海洋或河流之中,並在燃燒時漂流至沈沒,藉此贈送給無家可歸的水中孤魂做為歇息,也有幫亡魂照冥路意思。


[Releasing water lanterns ceremony]
Releasing water lanterns ceremony is part of the Chungyuan Pu Tu ceremonies( Hungry Ghost Festival ). It is used to give notice to the straight ghosts and lonely spirits whom wander in the water to come and receive the offerings of the Chungyuan Pu Tu ceremonies. The process of the releasing water lanterns ceremony varies depending on the area. Water lantern is made with paper to resemble a little house. Traditionally believe that materials would be transformed to a different world through burning. Before burning the water lantern, spirit money would be placed inside of the lantern, in the center of the house, along with candles and scriptures. Once the water lantern is lit, it will then being released in the water. It will gradually float down steam or into the ocean while it’s burning, then slowly sank into the water. It signifies the gifting of the houses to those lonely spirits and straight ghosts whom wander in the water to have a place to rest, and also means to shine a light on their way to the underworld.


[水燈頭(灯籠流し)]
台湾で水燈頭(灯籠流し)は中元節(お盆)に行う儀式で、水の下の無縁仏の霊を弔います。

儀式の流れは各地で違います。水燈頭は紙で作られた家を使って儀式を行います。一般的に紙の家を燃やしたら、あの世に届くと思われています。お金を模した紙、蝋燭、お経を紙の家の中に置いてから燃やし、川か海に流します。紙の家を燃やして水中に沈ませることで、家のない無縁仏の霊に休息できるところを提供する意味と霊に道を照らす意味があります。






[操五寶]

道教中的乩童分為「文乩」和「武乩」,兩者都是將身體借給神明,差別在於武乩會持法器,文乩不會。操五寶則是武乩的降駕行為。

五寶為神明的法器,分別為七星劍、鯊魚劍、釘棍、刺球、月斧。所謂的操五寶,就是乩童拿法器自殘自己的身體,以神的保護不懼疼痛來彰顯神威,並以血來鎮煞驅邪。通常乩童自殘的部位是頭部以及背部。

五寶又代表了神明五營兵將的五個方位,別為東、西、南、北、中營,操五寶又代表了指揮神明的軍營。

最常見操五寶的神明為三太子和或玄天上帝等武將類型的男性神明。

[The Five Sacred Instruments]

There are two types of shaman in Taoist practice: “Wen- Ji and Wu- Ji”. Both types lend their body to the gods as the vessel for the spirits to be presented in the physical world; the one main difference is Wu-Ji would use instruments once the body taken over by the gods but Wen- Ji just uses chanting.
Handling of the five sacred instruments is a Wu- Ji specialty once it’s been possessed by the gods.

The Five Sacred Instruments include a seven-star sword, a nail stick (brass rod and wolf tooth stick), a moon ax (moon eyebrow ax, double ax), a nail-studded ball and a Sawfish Sword.
The handling of the five sacred instruments is when the Wu- Ji shaman uses the instruments to self-mutilate him or herself to show that, by being possessed by the gods, the power of the gods would protect the shaman from injuries and pain. This is to signified the power of the gods, and to suppress evil spirits. Usually the shamans self-mutilation is done on either the back or the head.

The five sacred instruments also signifies the five military camps of the gods from five different directions: east, west, south, north, and center. Therefore the handling of five sacred instruments also means the command of the five military camps.

The gods whom are most commonly seen at the handling of the five sacred instruments are Nuochia and/ or Xuan Tian, both are male military general type gods.


[5つの宝物を操る]
道教のシャーマン:タンキー(童乩)にはブンキー(文乩)とブキー(武乩)の2種類があり、どちらも神様に体を貸します。違いは、ブキーは法道具を使用するが、ブンキーはそれを持てないことです。神様が身に降りる時はブキーのみ5つの宝物を操ります。

5つの宝物は神様の法器と言われ、それぞれ七星剣、シャーク剣、釘バット、刺球、月斧です。タンキーは5つの宝物を使い、自分の身体を自傷します。それは神様に守られていることで痛みを恐れず神力を示します。そして、血は悪霊を抑えられると思われています。タンキーが自傷する部位は大体頭部と背中です。

神様が率いる五営兵将は方位で分かれており、東営、西営、南営、北営、中営になっています。5つの宝物を操ることは神様が兵隊を指揮するものと思われています。三太子と玄天上帝など武神が身に降ろす際はよく5つの宝物を操ります。







[開光點眼]
開光點眼,簡稱開光,是道教中一個儀式。道教中認為神像在經過開光前只是雕塑物品而非神的存在,要請神進入雕塑品內需要經過開光儀式。

開光過程會依地區和道士而有所不同。一開始需要找一個德高望重的道士,然後選擇一個入座的日子;接著道士在儀式中會一邊唸咒一遍拿著寶鏡,將寶鏡照到的太陽光反射到神像上;再來將神像的軀體後背會開個洞,放入五至七種寶物後再將洞填起來。常見的寶物有金、銀、銅、鐵、錫、瑪瑙、玉石、珍珠、蜜蜂、蜈蚣、五色線等,也有地區會放入符咒或是用紅紙寫下神的起源。在最後道士使用毛筆,將白公雞的雞冠血和黑色鴨的舌頭血點上神像的五官和身軀,開啟耳、鼻、舌、身、意,統稱「六通」。

雞是陽氣和生命力的象徵,「鴨」因為發音同「壓」,所以是用來壓制煞氣,儀式用的雞鴨不能殺掉需要放生,演變至現代則多以硃砂取代。

[kāi guāng diǎn yǎn]
Kai Guang Dian Yan, the consecration ceremony is one of the many Taoist ceremonies. Taoists believe before the consecration ceremony, the statue or picture of the deity would just be the depiction without the essence of the spirit. To invite the spirit of the deity to reside in either the statue or the picture, the consecration ceremony is required. 

The consecration ceremony varies depending on the location and the preforming Taoist. Generally speaking, the process of the consecration ceremony would need a virtuous and reputable Taoist to pick the specific date to present the ceremony. During the ceremony, the Taoist would recite special scripture while hold a sacred mirror. Then sun light would be reflected on the sculpture or image with the depiction of the deity. After process, if its a sculpture, the back it would have a hole opened up and inserted with five to seven different sacred objects such as: gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, agate, jade, pearl, bee, centipede and/ or five colored tread. In some instances, depending on the locale where the ceremony is being preformed, written spells or the origin of the said deity written on a piece of red paper would also be inserted into the sculpture. Lastly, the Taoist would then use a hair brush dipped in the blood from a white rooster’s crown mixed with blood from the tongue of a black duck, to annotate the five senses and the body of the sculpture. To “turn on” the ears, nose, eyes body and the thought of the deity now attached to the sculpture. This is called “Liu Tong”, to turn on all six senses. 
White rooster signifies life and male vitality. While the pronunciation of duck in mandarin is similar to pressing down so it’s used to press down evil spirits. 

The rooster and duck used in the ceremony can not be killed and would be released alive. Nowadays in modern society, when this ceremony is being preformed, cinnabar is used to substitute live animal blood.

[開眼]
開光点眼、略して開眼。ダオイズムでは、神像は開眼される前は単なる彫刻であり、神様は宿っていないと思われています。開眼儀式を通して、神様を彫刻の中に迎え入れます。

開眼儀式の流れは地域と道士によって違いますが、通常は徳望が高い道士に依頼し、入座の日程を決めてもらいます。

儀式が始まると道士は宝鏡を持ちながら呪文を唱え、宝鏡で太陽光を神像に反射して照らします。神像の背中に穴を開け、5~7種類の宝物を入れてから封じます。よく使われるのは金、銀、銅、鉄、錫、メノウ、翡翠、真珠、蜂、ムカデ、五色糸など。

呪符か神様の起源が書いてある赤い紙を入れる地域もあります。最後に道士は筆を使い、白いオス鶏のトサカの血、黒い鴨の舌の血を順番に神像の五官と体に塗ります。目、耳、鼻、舌、体、意識を開きます。通称「六通」。

は陽の気と活力の象徴で「鴨」のマンダリン発音は「抑える」と同じで、悪を抑える意味があります。儀式で使った鶏と鴨は殺さずに放生します。現在では、血を辰砂で代用することが多いです。






[喝符水]
在道教中,符是道士將靈力以文字符號的形式,附著在紙張上作為指令,功用在於差遣鬼神、祈福、驅邪等用途。而符水就是將符燃燒後的灰燼放在水中,讓使用者喝下,可達到治病驅邪的效果。

[Drinking Amulet Water]
In Taoist practice, amulet is something a Taoist used its spiritual power combined with symbolic writing to create, and written on a piece of paper to be used to give out order. It’s usage could range from to order spirits or deities to do your biding, to pray for good luck, or to fend off bad omens .
Drinking amulet water is when you burn the amulet, mix the ashes of the amulet with water, and then drink it. By drinking it the drinker would hope for its ability to cure illness and fend off bad omens.






[豎燈篙]
豎燈篙是給在陸地上的孤魂野鬼的邀請函,常見於普渡活動,主要是讓鬼魂前來聚集,並且享用人們準備的祭品。

豎燈篙的形式通常是普渡前將將竹竿豎起,並掛上燈籠,讓燈籠在暗夜中能照亮孤魂野鬼的路,據說竹子越高代表能招到越多的鬼魂。

[To Erect Bamboo Lanterns]
To erect bamboo lanterns is to send out an invitation to the lost spirits and ghosts wandering on land, it’s most commonly seen at the Pudu Ceremony. It’s to call those spirits and ghosts to come enjoy the offerings prepared by the people. 

The practice of erecting the bamboo lanterns is to hang some lanterns on the top of the bamboo stick and then erect it up high. The light radiating from the lanterns would lit up the road in the dead of the night for those wandering ghosts and spirits. There is a saying that the higher the lanterns hung on the bamboo stick the more the wandering spirits and ghosts it can call.




[玄天上帝]
玄天上帝為台灣常見的道教神明之一。玄天上帝是中國明朝的護國神明,也是中國武當山上的主神。他被視為北極星的化身,是屬於自然崇拜演變出來的神祇,也是統理北方的神明。北方在五行中屬水,所以也能管理海上的事務。北方代表星宿為玄武,玄武的形象為龜和蛇,正是玄上帝腳下所踩踏的生物。

另外在民間傳說中,玄天上帝原本是個屠夫,因為受到觀世音菩薩的指點,深覺自己因屠宰動物罪孽深重,所以切腹取出腸胃丟入河中洗滌自己的罪孽,因此而得道升天成為玄天上帝。但之後在河中的腸和胃分別變成龜精和蛇精,並在人間作亂,於是玄天上帝向呂洞賓借劍,收伏二精並踩踏於腳底。也因為這則民間傳說玄天上帝又被視為屠宰業的守護神。

關於這個傳說另外一種揣測是因為玄天上帝是明朝的守護神,清朝為了將玄天上帝信仰淡化所以才有了屠夫化身的說法。

[Xuántiān Shàngdì]

     Xuántiān Shàngdì is one of the most commonly seen Taoist deities in Taiwan. Since the usurping Yongle Emperor of the Ming dynasty claimed to receive the divine assistance of Xuanwu during his successful Jingnan Campaign against his nephew, he had a number of Taoist monasteries constructed in the Wudang Mountains of Hubei, where Xuanwu allegedly attained immortality.

He is also treated as the metaphor of the North Star as the deity of natural worshipping. Great Deity of the Northern Peak, one of the cosmological "Five Forms of the Highest Deity"

     As one of the five forms of cosmological representations, north significance water, therefore it makes Xuántiān Shàngdì capable of being in charge of sea affairs. Also, the representations of the north constellation happen to be the black tortoise or black turtle. As one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. It is usually depicted as a turtle entwined together with a snake, and these animals happen to be the ones Xuántiān Shàngdì is stepping on. 

     In folklore tail, Xuántiān Shàngdì was originally a butcher and the goddess Guanyin showed him his sins. To redeem his sins, he dug out his own stomach and intestines and washed them in  the river. Because of that, he then became immortal ascended to heaven with the title of Xuántiān Shàngdì.
After he became an immortal, his stomach and intestines absorbed the essence of the earth. His viscera transformed into a demonic turtle and a demonic snake, who started to hurt people. No one could subdue the demonic animals. Eventually, Xuanwu returned to earth and he borrowed the sword from Lü Dongbin to subdue them. After defeating them, he later used them as his subordinates. Due to this folklore tail, Xuántiān Shàngdì is also treated as a patron god of slaughter industry. 

Another speculation about this folklore tail is that because Xuántiān Shàngdì is the guardian god of Ming dynasty, and Ching dynasty wanted to weaken the gasp of the Xuántiān Shàngdì belief so had the story of the butcher transform made up.







[天篷元帥]
天篷元帥原本是道教中的位高權重的護法神,到中國明朝時期因為名著「西遊記」的誕生,所以民間都將天蓬元帥和西遊記中的豬形象聯想在一起。

在西遊記中天蓬元帥又名為豬八戒,豬八戒角色性格貪婪好色,因此他就成了八大行業所膜拜的對象,又被稱為豬哥爺。

豬哥爺的神像通常放在暗室,特種行業的女子穿的越裸露去拜,豬哥爺越開心,越開心就會越靈驗,供桌上除了擺一般的供品外還可以放色情雜誌,但是禁拜豬肉。

[Tiānpéng Yuánshuài]
     Tiānpéng Yuánshuài was originally a powerful dharmapala in the Taoist religion. Because of the depiction in the well known novel “Journey to the West” published in the 16th century during the Ming dynasty, folks started making the connection of him with the pig image. 

     In “Journey to the West”, Tiānpéng Yuánshuài is also called Zhu Bajie, and has the  propensity for lusting after pretty women. Because of that tendency, he then became the subject of worshipping for sex industry in the modern days. He is also called Zhū gē yé.

     His deity statue is often kept in a dark room for worshipping. When women from sex industry dressed revealing to go worship him, he would be entertained and happy. The more these women reveal, the happier he gets, and the happier he gets, the more efficacious he become. When leaving offerings on his desk, it’s encouraged to not only leave normal offerings but also adult magazines. Also, be aware that no pork is allowed because of  his namesakes.


2020年9月17日 星期四

《無惨絵展 ~cruel and beauty~》聯展 / ヴァニラ画廊 / 日本

 


西漢時期皇帝劉邦,有個美麗側室戚夫人,戚夫人仗著自己受寵,要求改立自己的兒子為太子,此舉惹怒了皇后呂后。在劉邦死後不久,呂后把戚夫人抓起來,先當僕人使喚,然後施行把人變成豬的酷刑「人彘」,首先把人四肢砍掉,接著割去耳朵、鼻子、舌頭,挖出眼睛,弄聾耳朵,喝下藥物破壞聲帶,最後扔進廁所裡,只能痛苦掙扎蠕動無法發聲。 
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中国の西漢時代に、前漢王朝の高祖劉邦の皇后「呂后」と側室「戚夫人」は息子を帝位につかせるための闘争でお互い憎しみを募らせた。劉邦が亡くなって間もなく、呂后は戚氏に罪を着せ投獄し奴隷のように扱い、戚夫人の両手両足を切り、耳鼻舌を切り落とし、目玉をくり抜き、硫黄で耳を溶かし、劇薬を飲ませ声を出なくさせ、厠に投げ落としてそれを人彘(人豚)と呼ばせた。